Airplane Takeoff and Departure Stall

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In order to practice the recognition of and recovery from this stall, take your aircraft to at least 1500 feet above ground level. Clear the area, as always, before practicing stalls. This particular stall is initiated at liftoff speed, so retard the throttle well below cruise RPM and maintain a constant altitude as the aircraft slows to liftoff speed. As you reach liftoff speed, advance the throttle to full takeoff or climb power and increase the pitch simultaneously, not allowing any acceleration of the aircraft. After the desired pitch is established, all controls are returned to neutral except for the rudder, which must be used to overcome torque and P-factor. Recovery can be initiated at the first indication of the impending stall or after the full break.

The takeoff and departure stall should be practiced from a straight climb as well as climbing turns in both directions. When you practice it while turning, use a moderate bank of 15 to 20 degrees. Notice how the cues in this stall seem to come one at a time. You should be able to recover at any one of the cues. In fact, to the competent pilot, these cues almost scream for action on the part of the pilot. Recovery will be normal except for the power. Because you already have a high-power setting, reduce the pitch to break the stall and level the wings using coordinated control forces. Then fly the aircraft out of the stall with as little altitude loss as possible, and set up a normal climb.

Approach-to-landing stall
The approach-to-landing stall often occurs on the turn from base leg to final approach, but it has been known to happen when a pilot attempts to stretch the glide on final without sufficient power to maintain altitude. The turn from base leg to final approach is the prime area for this stall because pilots often start their turn to final too late and are tempted to add a little inside rudder and some backpressure to tighten the turn. Seeing that this helps a little but that they are still going to overshoot the runway centerline, they sneak in a little more rudder and backpressure to tighten the turn even more. Often they use opposite aileron to try to keep the turn from overbanking due to the effect of the rudder and backpressure. They are so intent on making the runway on the first try, rather than going around and flying a better pattern, that they fail to notice the cues the aircraft is giving them. It is the perfect setup for an approach-to-landing stall.

Approach-to-landing stalls are executed from normal approach speed and should be practiced from straight glides as well as gliding turns (the latter simulates the turn from base to final). Clean and full-flap configurations should be practiced because you might be called on to make various approaches in various configurations during the conduct of actual flight. Also, these stalls should be practiced at an altitude higher than the minimum recovery altitude of 1500 feet above the ground because you will be in a descent during the maneuver.

After carefully clearing the area, smoothly begin to retard the throttle to the approach power setting. Maintain your altitude as you slow to the approach speed. During this time, the flaps should be lowered to landing position (assuming the aircraft is so equipped). When normal approach speed is reached, initiate a descent. After descending about 200 feet, begin to smoothly increase the pitch as the power is reduced to near idle. Continue to increase the angle of attack until the stall occurs. The stall usually occurs with very little nose-high attitude. Pulling the nose up too sharply ruins the intent of the maneuver. Because this stall almost always happens slowly and gradually, you should be able to recognize and feel the cues as they come one at a time.

Recovery from an approach-to-landing stall can be initiated at any point, up to and including a full break. Recovery is much like a fullflap go-around from a landing approach. Relax backpressure and smoothly add power as you level the wings and transition to bestangle-of-climb or best-rate-of-climb airspeed. While you are doing this, the flaps should be brought up to the manufacturer’s recommended setting for a go-around. In most aircraft, the flaps are not brought up all at once because that can cause a momentary sink, which could prove problematic at a very low altitude.

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